These are the goings out - Each of the four sides of the city was four thousand five hundred cubits long. There were three gates on each side, as mentioned below; and the whole circumference of the city was eighteen thousand cubits. See the map, plan B. dddd.
The rector of New Haven College, in New England, supposes the preceding representations to refer to the happy state of the Church in what is called the Millennium. Leaving this period out of the question, the following observations are worthy of notice: -
"The Jews, for whom this vision was intended, would conceive their country to be divided to the twelve tribes, in lots of a regular and mathematical form; and not confused or intermixed, as in Joshua's time. Their city laid out larger than before; and exactly foursquare, with regular suburbs; the temple and appendages much more commodious for their sacrifices, and the habitations of the priests and Levites regularly formed round about the temple. So that this whole plan of the division of the country, laying out of the city, temple, and all the appendages, appears to be perfectly regular and uniform, as if it were drawn all at one time, and by one hand, who had power to effect it; and therefore conveyed to the Jews the most complete idea they were capable of conceiving of the most perfect church, commonwealth, city, temple, and conveniences, for Divine worship. I. The Holy Land, as described chap. 47 and 48, according to the original grant, being about two hundred and fifty miles long, north and south, and about one hundred and fifty miles wide, is divided, by parallel lines east and west, to the twelve tribes, each of them having a portion twenty miles wide. Only between Judah and Benjamin there is a holy portion near ten miles wide; in the middle of which is the holy oblation, twenty-five thousand cubits; that is, about ten miles square for the priests, Levites, city, and temple, Ezekiel 45:1; Ezekiel 48:8; the two ends are for the prince, Ezekiel 45:7, etc.
II. The holy oblation, lying in the middle of the holy portion, is twenty-five thousand cubits square, which is near ten miles; of which ten thousand cubits, or four miles, are taken off from the north side for a habitation for the priests, and as much for the Levites on the south side, Ezekiel 45:4, Ezekiel 45:5, and Ezekiel 48:20; and five thousand cubits in the middle for the city portion, Ezekiel 45:6; in the middle of which is the city, four thousand five hundred cubits square, which is nearly two miles, Ezekiel 48:15, Ezekiel 48:16. Round about this is left two hundred and fifty cubits, near thirty rods, for suburbs, Ezekiel 48:17. The remaining ten thousand cubits on the east side, and the ten thousand cubits on the west side, are for the profit of those who serve the city, out of all the tribes, Ezekiel 48:18, Ezekiel 48:19. The sanctuary is in the midst of the city, Ezekiel 48:8. III. The sanctuary or temple, and its appendages, were entirely surrounded with a wall six cubits high and six cubits thick, Ezekiel 40:5; and five hundred cubits long on each side, Ezekiel 42:15, etc., and Ezekiel 45:2. In the middle square stands the temple, which was surrounded by a wall one hundred cubits long on each side, Ezekiel 41:13, and six cubits thick, Ezekiel 41:5. The side-chambers on the outside four cubits, Ezekiel 41:5. The Holy of Holies, at the west end, was twenty cubits square on the inside, Ezekiel 41:4. The holy place or outer court at the east end, was forty cubits, Ezekiel 41:12. The length of the porch on the north side was twenty cubits; the breadth was eleven cubits, Ezekiel 40:49; and the width of the separate place on the south side twenty cubits. On each side of the temple, towards the four gates in the outer wall, stood two courts, eight in the whole, each one hundred cubits square, Ezekiel 40:19, Ezekiel 40:23, Ezekiel 40:27. In each of these were thirty-six little chambers or buildings, about six cubits square, viz., six at the entrance of the gate, Ezekiel 40:7, Ezekiel 40:17, Ezekiel 40:20, etc., and thirty on the pavement, Ezekiel 40:17, etc., which were for lodgings for the priests, for hanging up their garments, and their part of the sacrifices, Ezekiel 42:13."
Calmet has constructed a map to show the position of the tribes, and the quantum of space each was to possess. As this will give a better view of the subject than any written description can, I have inserted one constructed for this work, which, consulting the places said to be connected with the possessions of the different tribes, shows that the tribes did not all possess the same quantum of space, five of the southern tribes possessing only one half as much as those of the north.